From 1990 the republic has adopted three crucial documents - the Declaration of State Sovereignty, the Constitution and the Treaty with the Russian Federation on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers. The three documents together form the basis for legal state, political stability of the society, economic reforms.On April 19, 2002, the State Council of Tatarstan adopted the revised version of the Constitution. The Constitution proclaims an individual, his rights and liberties the highest value and obliges the Republic of Tatarstan to accept, observe and protect human and civil rights and freedoms. The Tatarstan Constitution provides for such principles as universal suffrage, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, right to participate in political parties and organizations, etc.

In accordance with the Tatarstan Constitution, from June 2000 the republic has the institution of the Commissioner for human rights in the Republic of Tatarstan. The post of Commissioner for the child rights in the Tatarstan Republic is founded in 2010.

The Tatarstan Constitution secures the division of legislative, executive and judicial powers.

The Rais (Head) is the head of state and highest official in Tatarstan. He heads the executive system of the republic and directs the Cabinet of Ministers - executive and administrative authority. The Cabinet is accountable to the Rais (Head). The candidature of a Prime Minister is suggested by the Rais (Head) and approved by the Parliament of Tatarstan.

Unicameral State Council (Parliament) is the supreme representative and legislative authority of Tatarstan.

The bodies of local self-government are independent within their powers and do not belong to the system of state authorities.

The judicial power in Tatarstan is executed by the Constitutional Court, federal courts of general jurisdiction, the Arbitrary Court of the Republic of Tatarstan and justices of the peace. Judicial proceedings and records management are carried out in accordance with the federal legislation.